Archive for June, 2008


RFCc2549 – IP over Avian Carriers with Quality of Service

June 25, 2008

Network Working Group                                    D. Waitzman
Request for Comments: 2549                       IronBridge Networks
Updates: 1149                                           1 April 1999
Category: Experimental

IP over Avian Carriers with Quality of Service

Status of this Memo

This memo defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet
community.  It does not specify an Internet standard of any kind.
Discussion and suggestions for improvement are requested.
Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999).  All Rights Reserved.


This memo amends RFC 1149, “A Standard for the Transmission of IP
Datagrams on Avian Carriers”, with Quality of Service information.
This is an experimental, not recommended standard.

Overview and Rational

The following quality of service levels are available: Concorde,
First, Business, and Coach.  Concorde class offers expedited data
delivery.  One major benefit to using Avian Carriers is that this is
the only networking technology that earns frequent flyer miles, plus
the Concorde and First classes of service earn 50% bonus miles per
packet.  Ostriches are an alternate carrier that have much greater
bulk transfer capability but provide slower delivery, and require the
use of bridges between domains.

The service level is indicated on a per-carrier basis by bar-code
markings on the wing.  One implementation strategy is for a bar-code
reader to scan each carrier as it enters the router and then enqueue
it in the proper queue, gated to prevent exit until the proper time.
The carriers may sleep while enqueued.

For secure networks, carriers may have classes Prime or Choice.
Prime carriers are self-keying when using public key encryption.
Some distributors have been known to falsely classify Choice carriers
as Prime.

Packets MAY be marked for deletion using RED paint while enqueued.

Weighted fair queueing (WFQ) MAY be implemented using scales, as

_____/—–\   / o\
<____   _____\_/    >–
+—–+              \ /    /______/
| 10g |               /|:||/
+—–+              /____/|
| 10g |                    |
+—–+          ..        X

Carriers in the queue too long may leave log entries, as shown on the

The following is a plot of traffic shaping, from coop-erative host

Alt |       Plot of Traffic Shaping showing carriers in flight
2k |           ………………..
|          .                    .
|         .                      .
1k |        .                        .
|   +—+                          +—+
|   | A |                          | B |
|   +—+                          +—+

Avian carriers normally bypass bridges and tunnels but will seek out
worm hole tunnels.  When carrying web traffic, the carriers may
digest the spiders, leaving behind a more compact representation.
The carriers may be confused by mirrors.

Round-robin queueing is not recommended.  Robins make for well-tuned
networks but do not support the necessary auto-homing feature.

A BOF was held at the last IETF but only Avian Carriers were allowed
entry, so we don’t know the results other than we’re sure they think
MPLS is great.  Our attempts at attaching labels to the carriers have
been met with resistance.

NATs are not recommended either — as with many protocols, modifying
the brain-embedded IP addresses is difficult, plus Avian Carriers MAY
eat the NATs.

Encapsulation may be done with saran wrappers.  Unintentional
encapsulation in hawks has been known to occur, with decapsulation
being messy and the packets mangled.

Loose source routes are a viable evolutionary alternative enhanced
standards-based MSWindows-compliant technology, but strict source
routes MUST NOT be used, as they are a choke-point.

The ITU has offered the IETF formal alignment with its corresponding
technology, Penguins, but that won’t fly.

Multicasting is supported, but requires the implementation of a clone
device.  Carriers may be lost if they are based on a tree as it is
being pruned.  The carriers propagate via an inheritance tree.  The
carriers have an average TTL of 15 years, so their use in expanding
ring searches is limited.

Additional quality of service discussion can be found in a Michelin’s

MIB and Management issues

MAX-ACCESS can’t-read
STATUS     living
DESCRIPTION “Definition of an avian carrier”
::= { life eukaryotes mitochondrial_eukaryotes crown_eukaryotes
metazoa chordata craniata vertebrata gnathostomata
sarcopterygii terrestrial_vertebrates amniota diapsida
archosauromorpha archosauria dinosauria aves neornithes
columbiformes columbidae columba livia }

MAX-ACCESS not-accessible
STATUS     obsolete
DESCRIPTION “Definition of an avian carrier”
::= { life animalia chordata vertebrata aves
columbiformes columbidae columba livia }

SYNTAX     Gauge(0..300)
MAX-ACCESS read-only

STATUS     current
DESCRIPTION “Pulse rate of carrier, as measured in neck.
Frequent sampling is disruptive to operations.”
::= { AvCarrier 1}

The carriers will not line up in lexigraphic order but will
naturally order in a large V shape.  Bulk retrieval is possible
using the Powerful Get-Net operator.

Specification of Requirements

In this document, several words are used to signify the requirements
of the specification.  These words are often capitalized.

MUST      Usually.

MUST NOT  Usually not.

SHOULD    Only when Marketing insists.

MAY       Only if it doesn’t cost extra.

Security Considerations

There are privacy issues with stool pigeons.

Agoraphobic carriers are very insecure in operation.

Patent Considerations

There is ongoing litigation about which is the prior art: carrier or


Waitzman, D., “A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams on
Avian Carriers”, RFC 1149, 1 April 1990.

ACKnowledgments > Jon.Saperia . ack 32 win 123 (DF)
Ross Callon, Scott Bradner, Charlie Lynn …

Author’s Address

David Waitzman
IronBridge Networks
55 Hayden Ave
Lexington, MA 02421
Phone: (781) 372-8161


Full Copyright Statement

Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999).  All Rights Reserved.

This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
included on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this
document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than

The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

This document and the information contained herein is provided on an

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RFCc1149 – Standard for the transmission of IP datagrams on avia

June 25, 2008

RFCc1149 – Standard for the transmission of IP datagrams on avia

Network Working Group                                        D. Waitzman
Request for Comments: 1149                                       BBN STC
1 April 1990

A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams on Avian Carriers

Status of this Memo

This memo describes an experimental method for the encapsulation of
IP datagrams in avian carriers.  This specification is primarily
useful in Metropolitan Area Networks.  This is an experimental, not
recommended standard.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Overview and Rational

Avian carriers can provide high delay, low throughput, and low
altitude service.  The connection topology is limited to a single
point-to-point path for each carrier, used with standard carriers,
but many carriers can be used without significant interference with
each other, outside of early spring.  This is because of the 3D ether
space available to the carriers, in contrast to the 1D ether used by
IEEE802.3.  The carriers have an intrinsic collision avoidance
system, which increases availability.  Unlike some network
technologies, such as packet radio, communication is not limited to
line-of-sight distance.  Connection oriented service is available in
some cities, usually based upon a central hub topology.

Frame Format

The IP datagram is printed, on a small scroll of paper, in
hexadecimal, with each octet separated by whitestuff and blackstuff.
The scroll of paper is wrapped around one leg of the avian carrier.
A band of duct tape is used to secure the datagram’s edges.  The
bandwidth is limited to the leg length.  The MTU is variable, and
paradoxically, generally increases with increased carrier age.  A
typical MTU is 256 milligrams.  Some datagram padding may be needed.

Upon receipt, the duct tape is removed and the paper copy of the
datagram is optically scanned into a electronically transmittable


Multiple types of service can be provided with a prioritized pecking
order.  An additional property is built-in worm detection and
eradication.  Because IP only guarantees best effort delivery, loss
of a carrier can be tolerated.  With time, the carriers are self-

regenerating.  While broadcasting is not specified, storms can cause
data loss.  There is persistent delivery retry, until the carrier
drops.  Audit trails are automatically generated, and can often be
found on logs and cable trays.

Security Considerations

Security is not generally a problem in normal operation, but special
measures must be taken (such as data encryption) when avian carriers
are used in a tactical environment.

Author’s Address

David Waitzman
BBN Systems and Technologies Corporation
BBN Labs Division
10 Moulton Street
Cambridge, MA 02238

Phone: (617) 873-4323

EMail: dwaitzman@BBN.COM

source :


How can I enable the RAS Dial-in tab on Windows XP computers that run Administration Tools?

June 18, 2008

To enable the RAS Dial-in tab in the Microsoft Management Console (MMC) Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in on an XP machine running the Administration Tools distribution package (Adminpak.msi), perform the following steps:

1. Create a registry file called dialin.reg. To do this, open a new file in a text editor such as Notepad, copy and paste the following text in the file, and name it dialin.reg:

Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00





“{B52C1E50-1DD2-11D1-BC43-00C04FC31FD3}”=”RAS Dialin – User Node Extension”

2. Merge dialin.reg with your XP registry, or run the following command from the command prompt:

regedit /s dialin.reg

3. Open a command prompt in XP and type the following commands, where ServerName is a Windows Server 2003 domain controller (DC) that has the Adminpak.msi installed:

cd /d %SystemRoot%\System32
copy \\ServerName\Admin$\System32\mprsnap.dll *.*
copy \\ServerName\Admin$\System32\rasuser.dll *.*
copy \\ServerName\Admin$\System32\rtrfiltr.dll *.*
regsvr32 rasuser.dll

4. Click OK to acknowledge the registration of the rasuser library. Your remote XP system should now have the RAS Dial-in tab.

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